Bladder Stones

Instead of needing to perform a laparotomy, a laparoscope and specific laparoscopic instrumentation can be used to identify, grasp and exteriorize a small section of the urinary bladder. A 5-10mm mini-incision can then be made into the bladder and retrieval of cystic/urethral calculi (stones) achieved using a 2.7mm cystoscope and stone retrieval instruments. Biopsy of intra-luminal polyps/tumors can also be performed minimally invasively using this approach. Following completion of the laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy the urethra can be examined both normo- and retro-grade using various rigid and flexible endoscopic instrumentation.